环境影响评价

Environment and Ecology in the Three Gorges

We are all experts! Does stakeholder engagement in health impact scopinglead to consensus? A Dutch case study

我们都是专家!健康影响评价范围界定引入利益相关者的参与能达成方案共识么?荷兰的案例研究

作者:Lea den Broeder, Kai Yin Chung, LoesGeelen,Monique Scholtes, Albertina Jantine Schuit and Annemarie Wagemakers

摘要:环境影响评价和健康影响评价中引入利益相关者的参与,为包容性的环境决策提供了机会,有利于对建设方案的潜在环境和健康影响达成一致意见。此文通过评估一个利益相关者参与的案例,来评价其在达成共识方面的实际效果。案例介绍了两个关于健康影响范围界定的专题讨论,20位利益相关者参与其中,包括政策制定者、专家和当地居民。采取了参与式的研究方法,包括听证会、半结构式调查问卷和访谈。分析方法包括对Atlas.ti数据分析软件的几轮编码分析,对软件输出结果的深入解读和讨论,以及研究问卷调查的结果。研究发现,参与者对健康与环境之间的关系进行了补充,并且达成一定共识,但也同时存在重要的分歧。研究证明,共同的学习经历、信任和相互尊重可以营造一种“共识感”,却不能在讨论的议题上达成一致意见。为了避免在今后的项目建设中产生冲突或不满,需要把明确地承认和接受不同意见作为今后利益相关者参与评价的一项基本准则。

关键词:利益相关者参与;环境影响评价;健康;范围界定

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176413

 

We are all experts! Does stakeholder engagement in health impact scoping lead to consensus? A Dutch case study

Lea den Broeder a,b   , Kai Yin Chung c   , Loes Geelen d , Monique Scholtes d , Albertina Jantine Schuit a,e andAnnemarie Wagemakers f

ABSTRACT

Stakeholder engagement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Health ImpactAssessment (HIA) provides opportunities for inclusive environmental decision-makingcontributing to the attainment of agreement about the potential environmental and healthimpacts of a plan. A case evaluation of stakeholder engagement was carried out to assess its effect in terms of consensus-building. The case consisted in two health impact scoping workshops engaging 20 stakeholders: policy-makers, experts and residents. A Participatory Action Research approach was adopted. Methods included observation, semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. Analysis methods consisted of several coding rounds, in-depth reading and discussion of Atlas.ti output reports, as well as studying questionnaire results. Participants reported a broadening of perspectives on health in relation to the environment and attainment of shared perspectives. Still, meaningful differences remained, indicating that joint learning experiences, trust and mutual respect created a ‘sense of consensus’ rather than a joint view on the issues at stake. To avoid disappointment and conflict in later project development, explicit acknowledgment and acceptance of disagreements should be included as a ground rule in future stakeholder engagement processes.

KEYWORDS  stakeholder engagement; environmental impact assessment; health; scoping

 

Cumulative impact assessment for Sindh barrages

印度信德拦河坝的累积影响评价

作者:Md. Masud Karim and NavinBindra

摘要:印度河上建有19座拦河坝,用于引水灌溉粮食产区和防洪。本文的研究对象古都(Guddu)拦河坝就是其中需要修复的一座。其累积影响涉及下游的两座拦河坝——苏库尔坝和戈德里坝。本文的研究目的就是评价古都拦河坝修复的累积影响。研究发现,大坝的建设和引水灌溉已对许多重要环境要素造成了负面或正面影响,包括:(1)印度河及其支流上许多河段的海豚栖息地破碎和海豚灭绝;(2)限制了鲥鱼的迁徙,导致商业价值极高的鲥鱼及其产卵区数量的急剧下降;(3)信德省干旱贫瘠的土地转变成了大面积的农田,为信德省带来了巨大的社会经济利益。

关键词:累积影响;海豚栖息地;鱼类迁徙;灌溉

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1228341

 

Cumulative impact assessment for Sindh barrages

Md. Masud Karim  and Navin Bindra

ABSTRACT

There are 19 barrages constructed on the Indus River to divert water to irrigate command areas for crop production and for flood control. The Guddu barrage is one such barrages, which requires rehabilitation and is the subject of the current study. There are two barrages, Sukkur and Kotri which are located downstream of Guddu barrage, whose impacts are also considered as part of the cumulative impact assessment. The objective of the study is to evaluate the cumulative impact as a result of the rehabilitation of the barrage. The construction of barrages and diversion of water for irrigation has resulted in negative and positive impacts on many valued environmental components including: (i) fragmentation of dolphins’ habitat and extirpation of dolphins in many river sections of the Indus and its tributaries, (ii) restriction of hilsa migration has resulted in drastic reduction in commercially important hilsa fish catch and its spawning area, and (iii) transformation of the arid barren lands of Sindh in to vast agricultural lands, which has resulted in significant socioeconomic benefits to Sindh.

KEYWORDS

cumulative impacts; dolphin habitat; fish migration; irrigation 

 

Development aid: Regulatory Impact Assessment and conditionality

开发援助:规制影响评价和附加条件

作者:Viktor Jakupec and Max Kelly

摘要:本文的目的是探讨规制影响评价如何协助官方开发援助(ODA)贷款和赠款项目的决策程序。探讨是出于这样一种现象:官方开发援助项目的规制影响评价,主要是在国际金融机构提供发展政策贷款时使用,而且使用目的是建立或者加强受援国的规制影响评价体系。其实,援助项目本身就会对受援国的经济和社会产生巨大影响,特别是当项目附加了具体的政策法规条件时。本文探讨了当援助项目要求受援国制定新的政策法规或对现有政策法规进行修订时,规制影响评价如何能够促进连贯的决策程序。研究探讨了开发援助的有效性、援助条件、所有权与规制影响评价的关系。文章建议对附加法规政策要求的援助项目开展规制影响评价。

关键词:规制影响评价;开发援助条件;官方开发

援助;华盛顿共识

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1228339

 

Development aid: Regulatory Impact Assessment and conditionality Viktor Jakupec  and Max Kelly

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) can contribute to decision-making processes of Official Development Assistance (ODA) loans and grants. The point of departure for the discussion is the phenomenon that RIA, within a context of ODA, is applied by International Finance Institutions mainly in the context of Development Policy Loans, to introduce or strengthen country systems for Regulatory Impact Assessment. However, ODA grants, and loans, particularly when specific policy or regulatory conditions are attached to them, significantly impact economic and social conditions within the beneficiary country. This article examines what role RIA can play in facilitating a coherent decision-making process affecting the ODA allocation within a context of conditionalities requiring the introduction of new, or changes to existing, policies and regulations. The discussion considers the nexus between development aid effectiveness, conditionality and ownership, and RIA. The article argues a justification for applying RIA to ODA loans and grants which carry regulatory and policy conditionalities.

KEYWORDS

regulatory Impact assessment; development aid conditionality; official development assistance; Washington consensus

 

 

Spatial analysis of environmental impacts of highway projects with special emphasis on mountainous area: an overview

山区高速公路工程环境影响空间分析综述

作者:Polash Banerjee and Mrinal K. Ghose

摘要:为了发展和安全需要,山区建设了越来越多的高速公路。山区环境对高速公路工程环境影响评价的数据收集和影响预测带来了挑战。引进地理信息系统,使用恰当的空间分析方法,可以大大降低山区环境带来的难度。此文就这一跨学科问题涉及的论文、政府报告和环评报告书进行了综述,并识别了基于地理信息系统开展山区高速公路工程环评的空间分析方法、模型和显著特征。文章发现,高速公路工程对山区的环境属性,特别是空气、噪声、水和社会经济的影响的空间分析,在很大程度上仍未被探索。

关键词:环境影响评价;地理信息系统;空间分

析;高速公路;山区;多标准决策

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176403

 

Spatial analysis of environmental impacts of highway projects with special emphasis on mountainous area: an overview Polash Banerjee  and Mrinal K. Ghose

ABSTRACT

Mountains are progressively being invaded by highways for development and defence purposes. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) of highway projects in mountainous areas creates a challenging environment for data collection and impact prediction. Geographic information systems (GIS)-based EIA, using appropriate spatial analysis methods can sufficiently reduce the challenges created by mountain environments. The present study includes a review of articles, including research papers, government reports and EIA reports cutting across the inter-disciplinary nature of the topic. The paper identifies the spatial analysis methods, models and salient features of conducting GIS-based EIA of highway projects in mountainous areas. It is observed that spatial analysis of impacts of highway projects on the environmental attributes, especially air, noise, water and socio-economy in mountainous areas are largely unexplored.

KEYWORDS

environmental impact assessment; geographic information system; spatial analysis; hig way; mountain; multi-criteria decision-making

 

 

The importance of cultural aspects in impact assessment and project development: reflections from a case study of a hydroelectric dam in Brazil

影响评价和项目建设中文化因素的重要性:巴西水电站的案例思考

作者:Philippe Hanna , Frank Vanclay , Esther Jean

Langdon and Jos Arts

摘要:欠缺对项目文化和社会因素的考虑可能导致减缓措施失效,甚至带来其他影响。本文批判性地分析了位于巴西中北部亚马逊地区的拉热阿杜水电站社会和环境补偿项目的设计和实施过程。项目对本土艾瑞特(Xerente)居民造成了大量社会和环境影响,如部落间的冲突、农耕方式和食物种类的变化。文章基于实地调查和大量文献分析,把项目、项目所在地区、本地居民和其宇宙观进行了统筹考虑,纳入了大范围利益相关者对补偿项目和其效果的意见,展示了传统文化价值和习惯在补偿项目中所起的作用。文章建议在减缓措施的设计和实施中通过应用人种学、反复协商和有效的本地人参与对社会文化因素进行更好地补偿。

关键词:自主、事先知情同意;环境许可程序;社

会影响评价;环境影响后评价;宇宙学;人类学

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1184501

 

The importance of cultural aspects in impact assessment and project development: reflections from a case study of a hydroelectric dam in Brazil Philippe Hanna  , Frank Vanclay  , Esther Jean Langdon and Jos Arts

ABSTRACT

Failure to consider the cultural and social factors of projects can lead to situations wheremitigation does not effectively address the impacts they were intended to alleviate, and can even create other impacts. We critically analyse the processes of designing and implementing a social and environmental compensation program for the Lajeado Hydroelectric Dam in the Amazon region of central-northern Brazil. This mitigation program caused a wide range of social and environmental impacts on the Xerente Indigenous people, such as intra-group conflict, and changes in agricultural practices and food regime. Based on qualitative fieldwork and an extensive document analysis, we present a contextualization of the region, the project, the Xerente people, and their cosmological understandings. We consider the perspectives of a broad range of stakeholders about the compensation program and its outcomes, and demonstrate how traditional cultural practices and values played a role in the unfolding of the program. Better comprehension of sociocultural aspects through the use of ethnography, ongoing consultation, and meaningful community participation in the planning and implementation of mitigation measures are recommended.

KEYWORDS

Free, prior and informed consent; environmental licensing process; social impact assessment; eIa follow-up; cosmology; anthropology

 

 

Incorporating climate change mitigation and adaptation into environmental impact assessment: a review of current practice within transport projects in England

环境影响评价中纳入气候变化减缓和应对:英国交通项目现状综述

作者:Stephanie Hands and Malcolm D. Hudson

摘要:英国的环境影响评价忽略了气候变化减缓

IAPA文摘

Abstracts of IAPA

和应对。鉴于欧盟发布了《环境影响评价指南(2014)修正案》,本文就环评报告的气候变化减缓和应对措施制定了一揽子新的审核标准,并将其应用于英国的10个交通建设项目。研 究 发 现 , 大 多 数 项 目 很 好 地 解 释 了 气 候 政策、气候学、气候变化效应和气候风险对项目的影响,但很多项目缺少详细的气候变化减缓和应对措施,并且基本没有对减缓对应或后续监测的承诺,原因据说是出于成本、时间限制以及没有强制法规要求。为了提高环评中气候变化减缓和应对的有效性,研究建议制定相关导则,改变环评从业人员的行为,更加全面地考虑气候变化问题,采用严格的后续监督和使用气候变化术语等办法。

关键词:应对;气候变化;减缓;综述;交通项目

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1228340

 

Incorporating climate change mitigation and adaptation into environmental impact assessment: a review of current practice within transport projects in England Stephanie Hands and Malcolm D. Hudson

ABSTRACT

Climate change mitigation and adaptation can be perceived as neglected in environmental impact assessment (EIA). In the light of amendments to the European Union EIA Directive (2014), we developed a novel criteria-based review package to assess climate change mitigation and adaptation as documented in environmental statements, and applied this to a sample of 10 transport developments from England. Justifications relating to climate policy, climate science, the effect of climate change on the development and its vulnerability to climate risks were well explained in most projects. Many projects lacked detail of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures and their benefits, whilst evidence of commitment to mitigation and adaptation or to post-decision monitoring was poor or non-existent; reportedly due to costs, time constraints and absence of mandatory requirements. It is recommended that to improve the effectiveness of the consideration of climate change mitigation and adaptation in EIA, the production of guidelines, change of behaviour of EIA practitioners, more holistic consideration of climate change issues, rigorous post-decision monitoring and use of climate change terminology are more widely adopted.

KEYWORDS

adaptation; climate change; mitigation; review; transport projects

发布日期:2018/5/7