环境影响评价

Environment and Ecology in the Three Gorges

Challenges to integrating planning and policy-making with environmental assessment on a regional scale – a multi-institutional perspective

 

 

Ayodele Olagunju and Jill A. E. Gunn

 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176412

 

 

Regional environmental assessment (EA) requires the participation of policy- and plan-making institutions to formulate, implement and monitor regional environmental management strategies. However, there is little understanding of what effective integration is in the context of regional EA and from the perspectives of planners and policy-makers involved. This paper seeks to explore how institutional actors perceive cross-domain integration vis-à-vis their own involvement in regional EAs. Thirty-eight participants from four regional EA initiatives in Canada shared their perspectives in an online survey. Three types of silo effects are identified: (1) institutional – intricately linked to factors such as coordination, goals and expectations, leadership and capacity; (2) disciplinary – characterized by limited communication and scepticism around data sharing; and (3) transactional – tendency of actors to emphasize individual narrow perspective rather than collective social and environmental outcomes. Additional findings reveal the importance of learning and multiple domain expertise as opportunities for enhancing cross-domain integration in regional EA practice. Finally, the study concludes that proactive consideration of potential silo effects is necessary for improved regional EA outcomes, and to facilitate more effective regional resource governance.

Keywords: Regional environmental assessmentplanningpolicy-makingintegrationinstitutional coordinationresource governance 

 

 

 

 

Challenges to integrating planning and policy-making with environmental assessment on a regional scale—a multi-institutional perspective

区域尺度上整合规划、决策与环境评价的挑战:一个多机构的视角

作者:Ayodele Olagunju, Jill A. E. Gunn

摘要:区域环境评价需要政策和规划制定机构的参与,来制定、实施和监督区域环境管理战略。然而,规划人员和政策制定者对于区域环境评价中各领域如何有效地进行整合却知之甚少。本文旨在探讨在区域环境评价中各机构如何看待自己参与的跨领域整合。文中来自加拿大的4个区域环境评价项目的38位参与者在一份在线调查中分享了他们的认识,共识别出3种类型的筒仓效应:(1)机构间——与许多错综复杂的因素有关,如机构间的协调、

各自的目标和期望、领导水平和能力;(2)学科间——特点是对于数据共享持怀疑态度,缺乏沟通;(3)人际间——不同角色倾向于强调个人狭隘的观点,而不是综合考虑社会和环境后果。其他研究结果表明,在区域环境评价的实践中,学习了解多领域的专业知识是非常重要的,可以为加强跨领域整合提供机会。最后,研究总结认为,要想改善区域环境评价成果,需要积极考虑潜在的筒仓效应,这样才有利于促进更有效的区域资源治理。

关键词:区域环境评价;规划;决策;整合;机构间协调;资源治理

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176412

 

Lessons learnt from voluntary strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) in Namibia

 

 

M. H. T. Hipondoka, D. B. Dalal-Clayton and H. van Gils

 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1192829

 

 

Ten strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) were undertaken in Namibia between 2008 and 2013, although it is not yet a legal mandate. Efforts are currently underway to establish a formal instrument for SEA processes. To inform the drafting of such regulations or at the request of proponents, seven of these SEAs were reviewed using a methodology developed for the OECD-DAC and based on principles of SEA good practice. The reviews examined the processes followed by the SEAs, appraised stakeholders’ reflections, and assessed the outcomes and contributions to decision-making. Although all analysed SEAs delivered on their respective terms of references (ToRs), inadequacies encountered were largely attributed to shortcomings in their ToRs. They showed inadequate public consultation or strategic dimension; failed to address alternatives to, and cumulative effects of, the policy, plan or programme assessed; and paid limited attention to synergies or antagonisms. The majority had some influence on decision-making and proposed monitoring procedures for identified mitigation measures. SEA regulations and measures to strengthen institutional and human capacity to sustain effective SEA application are critically needed in Namibia.

Keywords: Namibiastrategic environmental assessmentSEA regulationspublic consultation 

 

Lessons learnt from voluntary strategic

environmental assessments (SEAs) in Namibia

纳米比亚自愿战略环境评价的经验教训

作者:M. H. T. Hipondoka, D. B. Dalal-Clayton, H. van Gils

摘要:尽管尚未实施强制性的法律规定,纳米比亚在2008至2013年开展了10项战略环境评价。目前该国正努力制定用于指导战略环境评价过程的正式文件。为了文件的起草,在起草者要求下,本文使用经合组织国家发展援助委员会制定的方法并基于战略环境评价良好实践原则,对该国7个战略环境评价项目进行了复核。复核审查了战略环境评价程序,鉴定了利益相关者的反馈意见,并评估了战略环境评价成果和其对决策的影响。虽然所有战略环境评价都有各自的评价大纲,但由于评价大纲本身的缺陷,评价存在不充分、不完备之处。不足之处体现在公众参与不充分,战略高度不高,未能充分考虑政策、规划或计划的替代方案和累积效应,未能充分注意协同作用或拮抗作用。大多数战略环境评价对于决策有一定的影响,对确定的减缓措施提出了监控程序。文章指出,纳米比亚亟须制定战略环境评价条例和措施,以加强战略环境评价机构和人力资源建设,保障有效的战略环境评价。

关键词:纳米比亚;战略环境评价;战略环境评价条例;公众咨询

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1192829

 

 

 

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE PAPER

 

Complementarity of two impact assessment tools: the case of a hydroelectric power plant in one of Africa’s last hardwood forests in eastern Cameroon

 

 

Rodrigue Christel Tedjio, Eric Tcheutchoua Talla and Eric Djomo Nana

 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1184503

 

 

Two impact assessment tools, Toro’s recent method and Leopold’s matrix, were used in a complementary manner to predict the impacts of constructing a hydroelectric power plant in eastern Cameroon. We chose these two tools because of their relative simplicity, objectivity and good weighting of environmental indicator values compared to others. While the recent Toro’s method was more effective in terms of predicting impact importance, we found that the old Leopold’s matrix is still best in terms of determining the magnitude of impacts of project activities, i.e. extensiveness. These methodologies can be used in a complementary manner because they give a good weighting of indicator values of importance and extensiveness of the environment. Methodologies too complicated should be avoided. Finally, we recommend that projects predicted to affect habitats of high conservation value be displaced, or if not possible, abandoned because such areas are of great importance for the maintenance of biodiversity and environmental stability of our planet.

Keywords: Toro's methodLeopold’s matriximpact assessment toolscomplementarityhydroelectric damCameroon

 

 

 

Complementarity of two impact assessment tools: the case of a hydroelectric power plant in one of Africa's last hardwood forests in eastern Cameroon

两种影响评价工具的互补性:以喀麦隆东部非洲最后一片阔叶林中的水力发电厂为例

作者:Rodrigue Christel Tedjio, Eric Tcheutchoua Talla,

Eric Djomo Nana

摘要:喀麦隆东部一座水力发电厂的环境影响预测使用了两种互补的影响评价工具,Toro法和Leopold矩阵。之所以选择这两种工具,是因为它们比其他方法相对简洁、客观,以及良好的环境指标值权重。我们发现新出的Toro法在预测影响的重要性方面更有效,而老的

Leopold矩阵在确定项目活动的影响程度方面仍然是最好的,例如影响的广度。这两种方法可以互补使用,为环境影响的重要性和广度指标值提供良好的权重。应避免使用太复杂的方法。最后,我们建议,对具有很高保护价值的栖息地有影响的项目应另外选址,如果不可能的话就应放弃项目,因为这些区域对于维护我们星球上的生物多样性和环境稳定性是非常重要的。

关键词:Toro法;Leopold’s矩阵;影响评价工具;互补;水电大坝;喀麦隆

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1184503

 

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE PAPER

 

Environmental impact assessment in Hong Kong: a comparison study and lessons learnt

 

 

LiYaning Tang, Linda Fan, Meng Ni and Liyin Shen

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1177934

 

 

Although many studies in developed countries on the practice of EIA have been conducted, there is a lack of similar attention in Hong Kong. This gap in knowledge is addressed in this study which summarises and records the current practice and lessons learned from priority projects. In the case of Hong Kong, this lack of understanding is important, since a significant number of infrastructure projects with applications pending for environmental approvals were delayed, awaiting the court ruling of the judicial review. In this research, the EIA system and practices in Hong Kong were comprehensively reviewed by a comparison study between Hong Kong, Mainland China, Taiwan and Singapore. Then field work of interviews with professionals and focus group meetings with Green Groups were conducted to seek opinions of interviewees and members about the mechanism of EIA. Recommendations on aspects of EIA systems are provided at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Environmental impact assessment (EIA)environmental impact systemcomparison studyHong KongMainland ChinaTaiwanSingapore

 

 

 

Environmental impact assessment in Hong Kong: a comparison study and lessons learnt

香港的环境影响评价:比较研究与经验教训

作者:LiYaning Tang, Linda Fan, Meng Ni, Liyin Shen

摘要:虽然发达国家的环境影响评价实践已开展了许多研究,香港的环评却缺乏类似的关注。为了弥补这一差距,本研究总结了香港当前的环评实践,借鉴学习了几个重点项目。增进这方面的了解对香港很重要,因为香港大量的基础设施项目环保审批被延期,等待法院司法审查裁决。此研究系统回顾了香港的环境影响评价制度和实践,并与内地、台湾地区和新加

坡进行了比较研究。研究开展了实地调查,与专业人士进行了访谈,与环保团体召开了专题会议,就环评机制征求了受访者和环保团体的意见。文章最后提出了完善环境影响评价制度的建议。

关键词:环境影响评价;环境影响体系;比较研究;中国香港;中国内地;中国台湾;新加坡

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1177934

 

VIEWPOINT

 

Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment in the UK after leaving the European Union

 

 

Alan J. Bond, Monica Fundingsland and Stephen Tromans

 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1211455

 

 

The United Kingdom has voted to leave the European Union and, until the terms of the ‘Brexit’ are negotiated, this has led to considerable uncertainty over the future practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the UK. Here we show that multiple obligations exist outside the scope of the EU which mean that EIA and SEA will continue to be required in the long term, but that their future compliance with the Directives remains unclear. We consider three scenarios for Brexit and present the implications of each; these are: signing up to the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement; membership of the European Free Trade Association, but not EEA, or negotiate a separate agreement. The implications of no longer being subjected to the obligations of the Directives under some scenarios are discussed and include opening the door for increasing diversity of application across the regions of the UK, and the probability of raised screening thresholds so as to reduce the burden of assessment on developers.

Keywords: BrexitEIASEAimmigrationEEAEFTA

 

 

Environmental impact assessment and strategicenvironmental assessment in the UK after leaving the European Union

离开欧盟后英国的环境影响评价与战略环境评价

作者:Alan J. Bond, Monica Fundingsland, Stephen Tromans

摘要:英国投票决定离开欧盟,尽管“英国退欧”条款还需要谈判,这已对英国环境影响评价(EIA)和战略环境评价(SEA)的未来实践带来相当大的不确定性。此文章表明离开欧盟也存在许多义务,意味着长期来看环境影响评价和战略环境评价还需要继续开展,虽然不清楚未来是否还遵守欧盟指令。文章考虑了英国退欧三方案,并分析了各方案的影响。三方案是:签署欧洲经济区(EEA)协议;成为欧洲自由贸易联盟的会员,而不是EEA;单独协商签署协议。文章分析了不同情景下不再受欧盟指令制约的影响,包括为英国范围内提高环评

应用的多样性提供了机会,也对提高筛选门槛、减少开发商的环评负担提供了可能。

关键词:英国退欧;环境影响评价;战略环境评价;移民;欧洲经济区;欧洲自由贸易联盟

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1211455

 

 

Towards a home-grown approach to strategic environmental assessment: adapting practice and participation in Kenya

 

Heidi Walker, Harry Spaling and A. John Sinclair

 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176409

 

 

Kenya is among the first countries in sub-Saharan Africa to formally require the assessment of public policies, plans and programs. National strategic environmental assessment (SEA) guidelines were finalized in 2012 to adapt and enhance SEA practice in the Kenyan context. The purpose of this research was to examine recent Kenyan SEA, with a particular emphasis on public participation, by developing and applying an analysis framework that both incorporates commonly accepted SEA principles and approaches and is cognizant of the national context in shaping SEA practice. Results reveal that a number of SEA practices are consistent with the framework in the nine cases considered, such as containing standard SEA components and developing monitoring plans. A requirement that each SEA must include educating the public about SEA is an innovative local adaptation. Results also show a number of practices that are still emerging, such as initiating SEA early and disseminating results to the participants. We conclude that SEA is still developing in Kenya, but processes for conducting it are slowly adapting to the Kenyan context.

Keywords: Strategic environmental assessmentpublic participationKenyaSEA analysis framework 

 

Towards a home-grown approach to strategic environmental assessment: adapting practice and participation in Kenya

寻找适应本土的战略环境评价方法:肯尼亚的适应性实践与参与

作者:Heidi Walker, Harry Spaling, A. John Sinclair

摘要:在非洲撒哈拉以南地区,肯尼亚是第一批正式要求对公共政策、规划和计划开展战略环境评价的国家。为了提高战略环境评价水平,并适应肯尼亚国情,肯尼亚于2012年出台了国家战略环境评价导则。本文根据普遍接受的战略环境评价原则和方法,并结合肯尼亚具体国情,制定了一套分析框架并将其应用于分析肯尼亚近期完成的战略环境评价,特别侧重于公众参与领域。结果表明,9个战略环境评价项目的某些做法是符合框架要求的,如它们都包含了战略环境评价的标准组成内容,也制订了监测计划。项目也根据当地情况制定了一项创新性的要求,即每个项目必须对公众进行战略环评的宣教。结果还显示了一些新的做法,如提前启动战略环境评价,把环评结果告知参与者。总之,肯尼亚的战略环境评价仍处于发展当中,但适应肯尼亚的国情还需要一个漫长的过程。

关键词:战略环境评价;公众参与;肯尼亚;战略环境评价分析框架

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176409

 

 

Establishing political impact assessment: revisiting contemporary approaches with Bangladesh cases

 

Bipasha Dutta and Kazi Maruful Islam

 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1181488

 

 

Despite the enormous significance of differentiated interests and power relations among the stakeholders in development interventions, political impact does not receive adequate attention and space in existing environmental impact assessment and social impact assessment frameworks. The goal of political impact assessment is to ensure democratization, participation, equity; human rights and understand the marginalization process, conflict and cooperation. Inadequate focus on political impacts like participation, marginalization and democratization could have severe impacts like increasing vulnerability and inequality. Using qualitative approaches, this study demonstrates that political impacts like lack of participation, democratization, access to service delivery and violation of human rights created and is predicted to create marginalization in case of Jamuna Bridge and Padma Bridge in Bangladesh. The paper argues that political impacts needs to be emphasized and assessed separately for facilitating more equitable distribution of benefits of infrastructure project and mitigating marginalization of individuals and communities.

Keywords: Bangladeshdemocratizationparticipationpolitical impact assessmentsocial impact assessment

 

 

 

Establishing political impact assessment: revisiting contemporary approaches with Bangladesh cases

建立政治影响评估:重温孟加拉当代的方法与案例

作者:Bipasha Dutta, Kazi Maruful Islam

摘要:在现有环境影响评价和社会影响评价框架下,政治影响评价并没有得到足够的重视和发展空间,尽管项目利益相关者之间的不同权益关系意义非常重大。政治影响评价的目标是保证民主化、参与性、公平性,保障人权,理解边缘化的过程、冲突与合作。政治影响没有得到充分的关注,如公众参与、边缘化和民主化问题,可能会产生不稳定性和不平等性增加等严重影响。通过定性分析,研究表明,在孟加拉Jamuna 桥和Padma桥建设项目案例中,缺乏公众参与、民主化、接近公共设施的便利性、侵犯人权这样的政治影响,预计会造成边缘化的问题。文章认为,需要重视政治影响并单独评价,使得基础设施建设项目的利益更公平地分配,减轻个人和社区被边缘化的影响。

关键词:孟加拉;民主化;参与;政治影响评价;社会影响评价

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1181488

 

Regulatory impact assessment in Slovakia: performance and procedural reform

 

Katarina Staronova

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176410

 

Regulatory reforms in Europe and OECD countries in the last decade have focused on various tools that would improve ‘regulatory quality’ by bringing more evidence, science and analysis into policy-making. This trend was also followed by Central and Eastern European Countries where regulatory impact assessment (RIA) was institutionalized on a formal level. In order to increase efficiency of RIA, several procedural changes, such as standardization of reports, two-phase system and oversight mechanism are considered. This article looks at these changes and discusses whether any qualitative improvements can be observed in evidence utilization. The paper focuses on RIAs conducted in Slovakia from 2007 to 2013 in order to observe any patterns. Most significant qualitative improvement is due to the standardization of RIA and clear methodologies. The effect of an oversight mechanism with limited powers and improper timing of its control function not only does not bring the expected qualitative improvement of RIA output, but can create loopholes for avoiding RIA altogether.

Keywords: Better regulationimpact assessmentregulatory oversightregulatory qualityprocedural changesSlovakia 

 

 

Regulatory impact assessment in Slovakia: performance and procedural reform

斯洛伐克的规制影响评价:成效与程序改革

作者:Katarina Staronova

摘要:在过去的十年中,欧洲和经合组织国家的规制改革都集中在提高“规制质量”的各种工具上,试图在决策过程中使用更多的证据、科学和分析。中东欧国家也紧随这一趋势,建立了规制影响评价(RIA)制度。为了提高规制影响评价的效率,还对评价程序进行了一些修改,如报告的标准化、采取了两阶段的制度体系和监督机制。本文着眼于这些变化,根据现有证据分析了规制影响评价的质量是否得到了改进。文章重点研究了2007至2013年间斯洛伐克开展的规制影响评价,试图找到些许固定的评价模式。研究发现,评价的标准化和明确的方法论使评价质量得到了最显著改进。由于权力有限和监控时间点选择不当,监督机制不仅没有使评价质量得到预期的改进,还可能为规避规制影响评价创造漏洞。

关键词:更好的规制;影响评价;规制监管;规制质量;程序性变化;斯洛伐克

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176410

 

VIEWPOINT

 

Managing rumor, looting, and suicide not as breaking news but as community disaster culture

 

Kyoo-Man Ha

 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176411

 

 

Not many have realized the close relationship between rumor, looting, and suicide and disaster management, although some researchers have discussed each issue separately. The purpose of this paper is to understand better the nature of these three issues by mainly analyzing them in the context of distinguished models, ‘breaking news’ and the community’s culture when it comes to disaster management. As the key finding, the field of disaster management must not manage rumor, looting, and suicide only as breaking news. Instead, these three issues should be managed under the community’s disaster culture to dispel rumors and provide facts through the mass media and public information officers, penalize cases of looting coupled with education, and support and intervene in cases of suicide.

Keywords: Disaster managementmass medianatural disasterpublic information officercommunity intervention

 

 

Managing rumor, looting, and suicide not as breaking news but as community disaster culture

把谣言、抢劫和自杀当作社区灾难文化来管理,而不是突发新闻

作者:Kyoo-Man Ha

摘要:很多人并没有意识到谣言、抢劫、自杀和灾害管理之间的密切关系,虽然有些研究人员曾单独讨论过某一个问题。本文的目的是从灾害管理的角度更好地了解谣言、抢劫和自杀的性质,把其放在公认模型、“突发新闻”和社区文化的语境下来分析。研究主要认为,灾害管理不应只把谣言、抢劫和自杀当作突发新闻来管理,而应放在社区灾难文化下管理,由大众传媒和公共信息官员提供事实驱散谣言,结合教育来惩罚抢劫、干预自杀并为其提供支持。

关键词:灾害管理;大众传媒;自然灾害;公共信息官员;社区干预

网址:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2016.1176411

 

发布日期:2018/5/7