Environment and Ecology in the Three Gorges

Challenges to integrating planning and policy-making with environmental assessment on a regional scale – a multi-institutional perspective



Ayodele Olagunju and Jill A. E. Gunn






Regional environmental assessment (EA) requires the participation of policy- and plan-making institutions to formulate, implement and monitor regional environmental management strategies. However, there is little understanding of what effective integration is in the context of regional EA and from the perspectives of planners and policy-makers involved. This paper seeks to explore how institutional actors perceive cross-domain integration vis-à-vis their own involvement in regional EAs. Thirty-eight participants from four regional EA initiatives in Canada shared their perspectives in an online survey. Three types of silo effects are identified: (1) institutional – intricately linked to factors such as coordination, goals and expectations, leadership and capacity; (2) disciplinary – characterized by limited communication and scepticism around data sharing; and (3) transactional – tendency of actors to emphasize individual narrow perspective rather than collective social and environmental outcomes. Additional findings reveal the importance of learning and multiple domain expertise as opportunities for enhancing cross-domain integration in regional EA practice. Finally, the study concludes that proactive consideration of potential silo effects is necessary for improved regional EA outcomes, and to facilitate more effective regional resource governance.

Keywords: Regional environmental assessmentplanningpolicy-makingintegrationinstitutional coordinationresource governance 





Challenges to integrating planning and policy-making with environmental assessment on a regional scale—a multi-institutional perspective


作者:Ayodele Olagunju, Jill A. E. Gunn






Lessons learnt from voluntary strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) in Namibia



M. H. T. Hipondoka, D. B. Dalal-Clayton and H. van Gils






Ten strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) were undertaken in Namibia between 2008 and 2013, although it is not yet a legal mandate. Efforts are currently underway to establish a formal instrument for SEA processes. To inform the drafting of such regulations or at the request of proponents, seven of these SEAs were reviewed using a methodology developed for the OECD-DAC and based on principles of SEA good practice. The reviews examined the processes followed by the SEAs, appraised stakeholders’ reflections, and assessed the outcomes and contributions to decision-making. Although all analysed SEAs delivered on their respective terms of references (ToRs), inadequacies encountered were largely attributed to shortcomings in their ToRs. They showed inadequate public consultation or strategic dimension; failed to address alternatives to, and cumulative effects of, the policy, plan or programme assessed; and paid limited attention to synergies or antagonisms. The majority had some influence on decision-making and proposed monitoring procedures for identified mitigation measures. SEA regulations and measures to strengthen institutional and human capacity to sustain effective SEA application are critically needed in Namibia.

Keywords: Namibiastrategic environmental assessmentSEA regulationspublic consultation 


Lessons learnt from voluntary strategic

environmental assessments (SEAs) in Namibia


作者:M. H. T. Hipondoka, D. B. Dalal-Clayton, H. van Gils









Complementarity of two impact assessment tools: the case of a hydroelectric power plant in one of Africa’s last hardwood forests in eastern Cameroon



Rodrigue Christel Tedjio, Eric Tcheutchoua Talla and Eric Djomo Nana






Two impact assessment tools, Toro’s recent method and Leopold’s matrix, were used in a complementary manner to predict the impacts of constructing a hydroelectric power plant in eastern Cameroon. We chose these two tools because of their relative simplicity, objectivity and good weighting of environmental indicator values compared to others. While the recent Toro’s method was more effective in terms of predicting impact importance, we found that the old Leopold’s matrix is still best in terms of determining the magnitude of impacts of project activities, i.e. extensiveness. These methodologies can be used in a complementary manner because they give a good weighting of indicator values of importance and extensiveness of the environment. Methodologies too complicated should be avoided. Finally, we recommend that projects predicted to affect habitats of high conservation value be displaced, or if not possible, abandoned because such areas are of great importance for the maintenance of biodiversity and environmental stability of our planet.

Keywords: Toro's methodLeopold’s matriximpact assessment toolscomplementarityhydroelectric damCameroon




Complementarity of two impact assessment tools: the case of a hydroelectric power plant in one of Africa's last hardwood forests in eastern Cameroon


作者:Rodrigue Christel Tedjio, Eric Tcheutchoua Talla,

Eric Djomo Nana








Environmental impact assessment in Hong Kong: a comparison study and lessons learnt



LiYaning Tang, Linda Fan, Meng Ni and Liyin Shen





Although many studies in developed countries on the practice of EIA have been conducted, there is a lack of similar attention in Hong Kong. This gap in knowledge is addressed in this study which summarises and records the current practice and lessons learned from priority projects. In the case of Hong Kong, this lack of understanding is important, since a significant number of infrastructure projects with applications pending for environmental approvals were delayed, awaiting the court ruling of the judicial review. In this research, the EIA system and practices in Hong Kong were comprehensively reviewed by a comparison study between Hong Kong, Mainland China, Taiwan and Singapore. Then field work of interviews with professionals and focus group meetings with Green Groups were conducted to seek opinions of interviewees and members about the mechanism of EIA. Recommendations on aspects of EIA systems are provided at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Environmental impact assessment (EIA)environmental impact systemcomparison studyHong KongMainland ChinaTaiwanSingapore




Environmental impact assessment in Hong Kong: a comparison study and lessons learnt


作者:LiYaning Tang, Linda Fan, Meng Ni, Liyin Shen








Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment in the UK after leaving the European Union



Alan J. Bond, Monica Fundingsland and Stephen Tromans






The United Kingdom has voted to leave the European Union and, until the terms of the ‘Brexit’ are negotiated, this has led to considerable uncertainty over the future practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the UK. Here we show that multiple obligations exist outside the scope of the EU which mean that EIA and SEA will continue to be required in the long term, but that their future compliance with the Directives remains unclear. We consider three scenarios for Brexit and present the implications of each; these are: signing up to the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement; membership of the European Free Trade Association, but not EEA, or negotiate a separate agreement. The implications of no longer being subjected to the obligations of the Directives under some scenarios are discussed and include opening the door for increasing diversity of application across the regions of the UK, and the probability of raised screening thresholds so as to reduce the burden of assessment on developers.

Keywords: BrexitEIASEAimmigrationEEAEFTA



Environmental impact assessment and strategicenvironmental assessment in the UK after leaving the European Union


作者:Alan J. Bond, Monica Fundingsland, Stephen Tromans







Towards a home-grown approach to strategic environmental assessment: adapting practice and participation in Kenya


Heidi Walker, Harry Spaling and A. John Sinclair






Kenya is among the first countries in sub-Saharan Africa to formally require the assessment of public policies, plans and programs. National strategic environmental assessment (SEA) guidelines were finalized in 2012 to adapt and enhance SEA practice in the Kenyan context. The purpose of this research was to examine recent Kenyan SEA, with a particular emphasis on public participation, by developing and applying an analysis framework that both incorporates commonly accepted SEA principles and approaches and is cognizant of the national context in shaping SEA practice. Results reveal that a number of SEA practices are consistent with the framework in the nine cases considered, such as containing standard SEA components and developing monitoring plans. A requirement that each SEA must include educating the public about SEA is an innovative local adaptation. Results also show a number of practices that are still emerging, such as initiating SEA early and disseminating results to the participants. We conclude that SEA is still developing in Kenya, but processes for conducting it are slowly adapting to the Kenyan context.

Keywords: Strategic environmental assessmentpublic participationKenyaSEA analysis framework 


Towards a home-grown approach to strategic environmental assessment: adapting practice and participation in Kenya


作者:Heidi Walker, Harry Spaling, A. John Sinclair






Establishing political impact assessment: revisiting contemporary approaches with Bangladesh cases


Bipasha Dutta and Kazi Maruful Islam






Despite the enormous significance of differentiated interests and power relations among the stakeholders in development interventions, political impact does not receive adequate attention and space in existing environmental impact assessment and social impact assessment frameworks. The goal of political impact assessment is to ensure democratization, participation, equity; human rights and understand the marginalization process, conflict and cooperation. Inadequate focus on political impacts like participation, marginalization and democratization could have severe impacts like increasing vulnerability and inequality. Using qualitative approaches, this study demonstrates that political impacts like lack of participation, democratization, access to service delivery and violation of human rights created and is predicted to create marginalization in case of Jamuna Bridge and Padma Bridge in Bangladesh. The paper argues that political impacts needs to be emphasized and assessed separately for facilitating more equitable distribution of benefits of infrastructure project and mitigating marginalization of individuals and communities.

Keywords: Bangladeshdemocratizationparticipationpolitical impact assessmentsocial impact assessment




Establishing political impact assessment: revisiting contemporary approaches with Bangladesh cases


作者:Bipasha Dutta, Kazi Maruful Islam

摘要:在现有环境影响评价和社会影响评价框架下,政治影响评价并没有得到足够的重视和发展空间,尽管项目利益相关者之间的不同权益关系意义非常重大。政治影响评价的目标是保证民主化、参与性、公平性,保障人权,理解边缘化的过程、冲突与合作。政治影响没有得到充分的关注,如公众参与、边缘化和民主化问题,可能会产生不稳定性和不平等性增加等严重影响。通过定性分析,研究表明,在孟加拉Jamuna 桥和Padma桥建设项目案例中,缺乏公众参与、民主化、接近公共设施的便利性、侵犯人权这样的政治影响,预计会造成边缘化的问题。文章认为,需要重视政治影响并单独评价,使得基础设施建设项目的利益更公平地分配,减轻个人和社区被边缘化的影响。




Regulatory impact assessment in Slovakia: performance and procedural reform


Katarina Staronova




Regulatory reforms in Europe and OECD countries in the last decade have focused on various tools that would improve ‘regulatory quality’ by bringing more evidence, science and analysis into policy-making. This trend was also followed by Central and Eastern European Countries where regulatory impact assessment (RIA) was institutionalized on a formal level. In order to increase efficiency of RIA, several procedural changes, such as standardization of reports, two-phase system and oversight mechanism are considered. This article looks at these changes and discusses whether any qualitative improvements can be observed in evidence utilization. The paper focuses on RIAs conducted in Slovakia from 2007 to 2013 in order to observe any patterns. Most significant qualitative improvement is due to the standardization of RIA and clear methodologies. The effect of an oversight mechanism with limited powers and improper timing of its control function not only does not bring the expected qualitative improvement of RIA output, but can create loopholes for avoiding RIA altogether.

Keywords: Better regulationimpact assessmentregulatory oversightregulatory qualityprocedural changesSlovakia 



Regulatory impact assessment in Slovakia: performance and procedural reform


作者:Katarina Staronova







Managing rumor, looting, and suicide not as breaking news but as community disaster culture


Kyoo-Man Ha






Not many have realized the close relationship between rumor, looting, and suicide and disaster management, although some researchers have discussed each issue separately. The purpose of this paper is to understand better the nature of these three issues by mainly analyzing them in the context of distinguished models, ‘breaking news’ and the community’s culture when it comes to disaster management. As the key finding, the field of disaster management must not manage rumor, looting, and suicide only as breaking news. Instead, these three issues should be managed under the community’s disaster culture to dispel rumors and provide facts through the mass media and public information officers, penalize cases of looting coupled with education, and support and intervene in cases of suicide.

Keywords: Disaster managementmass medianatural disasterpublic information officercommunity intervention



Managing rumor, looting, and suicide not as breaking news but as community disaster culture


作者:Kyoo-Man Ha





上一篇:IAPA 2017,Vol.35,No.2

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