环境影响评价

Environment and Ecology in the Three Gorges

序语

IAPA 文摘

 

国际影响评价协会(International Association of Impact Assessment,IAIA)于1980年在美国创建,是一个致力于推广环评最佳实践经验、推动环评技术创新发展的国际民间学术机构,在国际环评领域具有广泛的影响。IAIA现有来自全球120多个国家和地区的1700多名会员,包括环境影响评价各个相关专业领域的环评工程师和研究人员、政策分析师、规划师、项目管理人员等,其活动主要包括组织学术年会、专题会议和培训、开展专项研究以及出版简报和专业期刊等。

 

《影响评价与项目评估》(Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal,IAPA)是由IAIA主办的环评专业期刊,主要刊载建设项目、规划和政策评估以及环境、社会、健康、可持续性等领域的研究成果,对于促进我国的环评实践发展具有借鉴意义。

 

经与IAIA协商,自2017年起,《环境影响评价》杂志将翻译刊载IAPA全部论文摘要,并每年刊载一篇优秀论文的全部译文,以期为国内环评从业人员提供一个了解国际环评发展概况的全新窗口。相关摘要包含了与论文同等数量的主要信息,同时注明了全文的链接地址等,能够基本满足读者了解行业先进研究成果的需求。

 

 

 

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Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 2016,Vol. 34, No. 1

《影响评价与项目评估》2016年 第34卷 第1期

版权所有 © IAIA 2016


 

Social and human rights impact assessments: what can they learn from each other?

Nora Götzmann, Frank Vanclay and Frank Seier

 

 

Abstract:We examine key commonalities and differences between social impact assessment (SIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA) conducted for private sector projects to consider what these two fields might learn from each other. As HRIA is an emerging practice, current approaches are diverse and there is a lack of a robust understanding about how HRIA and SIA relate to each other. We suggest that the two fields have much in common in terms of: their objective to identify and address adverse impacts; their focus on process as well as outcomes; and their consideration of how to ensure the meaningful inclusion of vulnerable individuals and groups. However, there is also significant divergence in terms of: the standards applied; the relevance of project benefits; and the recognition of stakeholders as rights-holders and duty-bearers. We suggest that the further exploration of these areas of difference has the potential to create valuable cross-learning between SIA and HRIA, as well as the potential to open up spaces for joint initiatives where the two fields might address current shortcomings together.

Keywords: Due diligence, social licence to operate, corporate responsibility to respect, United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights

 

 


《环境影响评价》2017年第1期


 

社会和人权影响评价:两者可以相互学习什么?

作者:Nora Gtzmann, Frank Vanclay and Frank Seier

 

 

摘要:我们研究了针对私人部门项目开展的社会影响评价(SIA)和人权影响评价(HRIA)之间的主要共性和差异,思考这两个领域有哪些方面可以互相学习。人权影响评价(HRIA)作为一种新兴的实践,目前的方法多种多样,对于其与社会影响评价之间的关系缺乏清楚的理解。我们认为,这两个领域在以下方面有很多共同点:它们的目标都是确定和解决不利影响;它们既关注影响过程也关注影响结果;它们都考虑如何确保弱势个人和群体有意义地参与评价。然而,两者也存在重大差异,主要体现在:适用的标准;项目效益的相关性;利益相关者作为权利人和责任承担者的认定。我们认为,进一步探索这些方面的差异,有利于相互学习,创造价值,并且为同时开展两种评价弥补相互的不足提供了可能。

Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 2016,Vol. 34, No. 1

《影响评价与项目评估》2016年 第34卷 第1期

版权所有 © IAIA 2016

 

Assessing economic impacts of forced land acquisition and displacement: a qualitative rapid research framework

Asmita Kabra

 

 

 

Abstract:This paper sets out a qualitative rapid research framework for designing and conducting field-based studies of the livelihood risks and opportunities (LRO) arising from involuntary displacement and resettlement. The ‘livelihood risks and opportunities’ framework combines insights from the ‘impoverishment risks and returns’ framework and the ‘sustainable livelihoods’ approach. This paper discusses the advantages of the LRO framework over other currently used qualitative and rapid research methods, and demonstrates its application through case studies of conservation-induced displacement in India.

Keywords: Displacement, impact assessment, India, resettlement

 

 

强制征地与移民的经济影响评价:一个定性的快速研究框架

作者:Asmita Kabra

 

 

摘要:本文提出了一个快速定性研究框架,用于设计和实地研究非自愿移民所产生的民生风险和机会(LRO)。“民生风险和机会”框架结合了“贫困风险与收益”框架和“可持续生计”的观点和方法。本文论述了LRO框架相对其他常用的定性和快速研究方法的优势,并将其应用于一个印度的为了保护导致的强制移民案例。

关键词:强制移民;影响评价;印度;重新安置

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